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AMNISTIA, IMPUNITA, INDENNITA E GIUSTIZIA DI TRANSIZIONE – AMNESTY, IMPUNITY, INDEMNITY AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE

La giustizia di transizione comprende anche altri argomenti, tra cui quelli relativi alla amnistia, la corruzione, il disarmo, e, di particolare importanza la riconciliazione (FREEMAN 2005). Ogni elemento comprende una serie di misure, sia legali che non legali.  “Sebbene la moderna dottrina sembri difendere l’idea che tali procedure per accertare la verità dei fatti sono uno strumento per lenire la sofferenza e favorire la riconciliazione, non si deve dimenticare che amnistie eque, equilibrate e decise con oculatezza sono un rimedio classico che ha fatto buona prova di sé in molte situazioni” (ACP-EU 3754/B/05/def. 2005, p. 5).

 

L’amnistia può essere descritta come un provvedimento giuridico inteso a:

 

  1. vietare, senza effetto retroattivo, l’azione penale e, in alcuni casi, l’azione civile nei confronti di talune persone o categorie di persone per determinati atti criminosi commessi prima della decisione di amnistia; o b) annullare, con effetto retroattivo, la responsabilità giuridica precedentemente accertata.

 

La questione dell’ammissibilità delle amnistie sorge spesso in sede di negoziazione di accordi di pace e nel corso di altri processi di transizione. Secondo il diritto internazionale umanitario, gli Stati possono concedere l’amnistia a coloro che hanno partecipato ad un conflitto armato non internazionale per reati quali la rivolta, la sedizione o il tradimento. Gli Stati possono concedere l’amnistia anche agli insorti per legittimi atti di guerra (come l’uccisione di membri delle forze armate nemiche). Questa disposizione mira a favorire la riconciliazione liberando le persone detenute o condannate per il semplice fatto di aver partecipato alle ostilità. Non contempla tuttavia l’amnistia per coloro che hanno commesso gravi crimini internazionali.

 

Le amnistie che impediscono il perseguimento di soggetti che possono essere giuridicamente responsabili di crimini di guerra, genocidio, crimini contro l’umanità e altre palesi violazioni dei diritti umani o gravi violazioni del diritto internazionale umanitario sono incompatibili con gli obblighi che derivano agli Stati parte da varie fonti di diritto internazionale:

 

  • l’amnistia per il genocidio violerebbe la convenzione sul genocidio; • l’amnistia per crimini contro l’umanità sarebbe incompatibile con gli obblighi degli Stati previsti da vari trattati; • le amnistie che impediscono il perseguimento dei crimini di guerra commessi nel corso di conflitti armati internazionali o non internazionali sono incompatibili con gli obblighi derivanti agli Stati dalle convenzioni di Ginevra del 1949 e dei relativi protocolli del 1977, ampiamente ratificati; • l’amnistia per la tortura violerebbe gli obblighi degli Stati parte previsti dalla convenzione contro la tortura, ampiamente ratificata, e da altri trattati.

 

FONTI

OHCHR, Rule of Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Amnesties (Gli strumenti dello stato di diritto negli Stati che escono da conflitti – Amnistie), 2009.

Quadro strategico e piano d’azione dell’UE sui diritti umani e la democrazia (doc. 11855/12).

 

Decisione 2011/168/PESC del Consiglio, del 21 marzo 2011, sulla Corte penale internazionale e che abroga la posizione comune 2003/444/PESC.

 

Conclusioni del Consiglio, del 12 maggio 2014, sull’approccio globale dell’UE e comunicazione congiunta al Parlamento europeo e al Consiglio sull’approccio globale dell’UE alle crisi e ai conflitti esterni (JOIN (2013) 30 final), http://www.eeas.europa.eu/statements/docs/2013/131211_03_en.pdf

 

Elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli scritti sull’argomento:

Africa Watch. 1994. Impunity for Human Rights. Abuses in Two Homelands. Reports on KwaZulu and Bophuthatswana. New York: Africa Watch..

 

Ambos, Kai. 1997a. Straflosigkeit von Menschenrechtsverletzungen. Zur “impunidad” in südamerikanischen Ländern aus völkerstrafrechtlicher Sicht. Freiburg: Edition Iuscrim.

 

Ambos, Kai. 1997b. Impunity and International Criminal Law. A Case Study on Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina. Human Rights Law Journal 18,1-4: 1-15.

 

Amnesty International. 1995. Memorandum to the Select Committee on Justice. Comments and Recommendations by Amnesty International on Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Bill. London: Amnesty International, 13 January 1995.

 

Ash, Timothy Garton. 1997. True Confessions. The New York Review of Books 44,12: 33-38.

 

Bahr, Egon. 1993. Drei Jahre nach der Einheit – für eine Amnestie. Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden.S + F 11,4: 209-11.

 

Barcroft, Peter A. 1993. The Presidential Pardon – A Flawed Solution. Human Rights Law Journal 14,35775: 361-94.

 

Barrie, George N. 1997. Amnesty and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. De Rebus: 493-94.

 

Bizos, George. 1998. No One to Blame? In Pursuit of Justice in South Africa. Cape Town: David Philip.

 

Blum, L. A. 1991. Amnesty.

 

Boraine, Alex. 1995. Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Unique Features in South Africa with Special Reference to Amnesty. Paper presented at the “Dealing with the past”-Conference Evang. Akademie Bad Boll, 1.-3. December 1995.

 

Braude, Claudia, and Spitz, Derek. 1997. Memory and the Spectre of International Justice: A Comment on AZAPO. South African Journal on Human Rights 13: 269-82.

 

Breitbach, Michael. 1990. Amnestie – Medium politischer Integration. Recht und Politik.Vierteljahreshefte für Rechts- und Verwaltungspolitik 26,3: 178

 

Buchholz, Erich. 1992. Strafe und Kriminalität – Erfahrungen einer Generalamnestie. Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform 75,1: 47-53.

 

Cassel, Douglass. 1996. Lessons from the Americas: Guidelines for International Response to Amnesties for Attrocities. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 197-229.

 

Conflicting Reports on and Status of Indemnities. Matter of Public Importance. South Africa Parliament Debates. Hansard,No1, 23 January 1995: 34-74.

 

De Greiff, Pablo. 1996. Trial and Punishment, Pardon and Oblivion. On Two Inadequate Policies for the Treatment of Former Human Rights Abusers. Philosophy and Social Criticism 22: 93-111.

 

De Gruchy, John W. 1993. Guilt, Amnesty and National Reconstruction. Karl Jaspers’ Die Schuldfrage and the South African Debate. Journal of Theology for Southern Africa,No83: 3-13.

 

Domb, Fania. 1996. Treatment of war crimes in peace settlements? In War crimes – war crimes in international law, edited by Y. Dinstein and M. Tabory. Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

 

Du Plessis, Lourens M. 1994. Observations on Amnesty or Indemnity for Acts Associated with Political Objectives in the Light of South Africa’s Transitional Constitution. Tydskrif vir hedendaagse Romeins-Hollandse reg 57,3: 473-81.

 

Du Plessis, Lourens. 1994. Observations on Amnesty or Indemnity for Acts Associated with Political Objectives in the Light of South Africa’s Transitional Constitution. Tydskrif vir hedendaagse Romeins-Hollandse reg 57,3: 473-81.

 

Dugard, John. 1997. Is the Truth and Reconciliation Process Compatible with International Law? An Unanswered Question. South African Journal on Human Rights 13: 258-68.

 

Dugard, John. 1999. Dealing with Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option? The Third Manfred Lachs Memorial Lecture.

 

Eser, Albin. 1993. Grundlagen und Grenzen “Stellvertretender Strafrechtspflege” (7 Abs. 2 Nr. 2 StGB). Zur Problematik der “identischen Tatortnormen” bei Auslandstaten, insbesondere bei Amnestierung am Tatort. Juristenzeitung 48,18: 875-84.

 

Frei, Norbert. 1996. Vergangenheitspolitik: Die Anfänge der Bundesrepublik und die NS-Vergangenheit. München: C. H. Beck.

 

Friedrich, Jörg. 1994. Die kalte Amnestie: NS-Täter in der Bundesrepublik. Erweiterte und überarbeitete Neuausgabe. München: Piper.

 

Goldman, Robert Kogod. 1988. International Law and Amnesty Laws. Human Rights Internet Reporter 12: 9-11.

 

Greive, Wolfgang, ed. 1990. Amnestie, Gnade, Politik. Dokumentation einer Tagung der Evang. Akademie Loccum vom 18.-20. Nov. 1988. Rehburg-Loccum: Evang.-Akademie.

 

Hamber, Brandon. 1997. Living with the legacy of impunity. Lessons for South Africa about truth, compensation and crime in Brazil. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

 

Hammel, Frank A. 1993. Innerstaatliche Amnestien. Grundlagen und Grenzen aufgrund des internationalen Rechts. Frankfurt/M: Lang.

 

Hampton, Jean. 1988. The Retributive Idea. In Forgiveness and Mercy, edited by J. Murphy and J. Hampton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Harper, Charles, ed. 1996. Impunity: An ethical perspective – six case studies from Latin America. Geneva: WCC.

 

Heitmann, Steffen. 1993. Drei Jahre nach der Einheit – Gegen eine Amnestie. Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden.S + F 11,4: 211-13.

 

Hendricks, Fred. 1999. Amnesty and Justice in Post Apartheid South Africa: How not to Construct a Democratic Normative Framework. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.

 

Hoexter, Cora. 1989. The Administration of Justice, Defence Indemnities and Standing. South African Journal of Criminal Justice 2: 346-52.

 

Huhle, Rainer. 1991a. Tribunal gegen die Straflosigkeit von Menschenrechtsverbrechen in Lateinamerika. Nord Süd aktuell 5,2: 232-37.

 

Huhle, Rainer. 1991b. Demokratisierung mit Menschenrechtsverbrechern? Die Debatte um die Sanktion von Menschenrechtsverletzungen in den lateinamerikanischen Demokratien. In Lateinamerika im Umbruch?, edited by Detlef. Nolte. Hamburg: Institut für Iberoamerika-Kunde.

 

Human, Rights Watch. 1989. Challenging Impunity. The ´Ley de Caducidad’and the Referndum in Uruguay. NewYork: March.

 

International, Commission of Jurists. 1992. Justice not Impunity. International Meeting on Impunity of Perpetrators of Gross Human Rights Violations. Geneva: ICJ.

 

Jäger, Herbert. 1990. Amnestie für staatliche Verbrechen? Kritische Justiz 23,4: 467

 

Jessberger, Florian. 1996. Von der Pflicht des Staates Menschenrechtsverletzungen zu untersuchen. Kritische Justiz 29,3: 290-306.

 

Joinet, Louis. 1985. Study on Amnesty Laws and Their Role in the Safeguard and Promotion of Human Rights. Preliminary Report by Mr. Louis Joinet. Geneva: ECOSOC, Commission on Human Rights, Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. UN-Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/16.

 

Joyner, Christopher C. 1996. Arresting Impunity: The Case for Universal Jurisdiction in Bringing War Criminals to Accountability. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 153-72.

 

Keightley, Raylene. 1993. Political Offences and Indemnity in South Africa. South African Journal on Human Rights 9,3: 334-57.

 

Klaaren, Jonathan. 1999. A Second Organisatorial Amnesty? Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 14 June 1999.

 

Klug, Heinz. 1998. Amnesty, Amnesia and Remembrance: International Obligations and the Need to Prevent the Repetition of Gross Violations of Human Rights. Contemporary International Law Issues 92: 316

 

Knieper, Rolf. 1990. Prinzen Barone Untertanen (Zur Amnestie für staatliche Verbrechen). Kritische Justiz 23,4: 474

 

Kokott, Juliane. 1987. Völkerrechtliche Beurteilung des argentinischen Gesetzes Nr. 23.521 über die Gehorsamspflicht. Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 47,3: 506-36.

 

Kutz, Florian. 1999. Strafverzicht und Straferlaß für politische Straftäter in Südafrika: Von der Sharpeville-Amnestie bis zu den Amnestieverfahren der Wahrheits- und Versöhnungskomission. Unpublished Ph D. Thesis, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

 

Langan, Michael. 1991. Argentine President Menem’s First Pardons. A Comparative Analysis of Coverage by Buenos Aires’ Leading Dailies. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 16,31: 145-56.

 

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. 1991. Impunity – Prosecutions of Human Rights Violations in the Philippines. NewYork:

 

Loots, Jaco, and Du Plessis, Willemien. 1997. Vrywaringswetgewing en die Waarheidskommissie: nog is’t het einde net. (Amnesty Legislation and the Truth Commission: Still not the End). South African Public Law 12: 119-50.

 

Lutz, Dieter S. 1993. Amnestie – Eine Einführung. Vierteljahresschrift für Sicherheit und Frieden.S + F 11,4: 188-93.

 

MacSherry, J. Patrice. 1992. Military Power, Impunity and State-Society Change in Latin America. Canadian Journal of Political Science 25,3: 463-88.

 

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Malamud-Goti, Jaime. 1987. La “Ley de punto final”. Respuesta al Professor Julio Maier. Doctrina Penal 10,37/41: 339-46.

 

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Mamdani, Mahmood. 1997. Reconciliation Without Justice. Southern Review/ SAPEM 10,6: 22-25.

 

Manguel, Alberto. 1996. Memory and Forgetting. Index of Censorship 25,5: 123-31.

 

Marais, Hein, and Narsoo, Moul. 1992. And justice for all? The debate about a general amnesty – side-stepping crucial issues. Work in Progress,85: 8-12.

 

Marais, Hein. 1993. The Skeletons come out of the cupboard. The amnesty debate goes on trail. Work in Progress,No August 1993: 10-13.

 

Marmora, Leopoldo. 1987. Doktrin der nationalen Sicherheit. Menschenrechte und Demokratisierung in Lateinamerika am Beispiel Argentiniens. Liberal 29,1: 15-24.

 

Marxen, Klaus. 1989. Amnestierecht und Amnestiepolitik. Recht und Politik. Vierteljahreshefte für Rechts- und Verwaltungspolitik 25,2: 84

 

Mattarollo, Rodolfo. 1992. Processo a la impunidad de crimenes de lesa humanidad en America Latina, 1989-1991. Estudios Centroamericanos 47,528: 867-82.

 

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Montes, Larrain. 1992. Amnistiar y perdonar en Chile: Discusion moral de la moral dominante en materia de violacion de los derechos humanos. Estudios publicos 45: 273297

 

Moore, John J. 1991. Problems with Forgiveness: Granting Amnesty under the Arias Plan in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Stanford Law Review 43,3: 733-77.

 

Moore, Kathleen Dean. 1989. Pardons. Justice, Mercy, and the Public Interest. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

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Morris, Madeline H. 1996b. International Guidelines Against Impunity. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 27-39.

 

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