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RAPPORTI DELLE COMMISSIONI NAZIONALI PER LA VERITA E LA RICONCIALIZACIONE E GIUSTIZIA DI TRANSIZIONE – TRUTH COMMISSION REPORTS AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE

Una commissione nazionale per la verità e la riconciliazione è una autorità designata dallo Stato con il compito di scoprire e rivelare le malefatte passate da un governo (o, a seconda delle circostanze, anche degli attori non statali), nella speranza di risolvere il conflitto lasciati dal passato.

 

Tutte le Commissioni per la verità sono diverse, e il loro mandato molto spesso se adattata alle esigenze specifiche della società.

 

Si tratta di iniziative avviate nel corso degli anni ottanta, e moltiplicate nel decennio successivo.

 

Alla data odierna, più di 40 Commissioni “verità e riconciliazione” e più di 10 Commissioni d’inchiesta vere e proprie, sono state istituite o stanno ancora lavorando attivamente (come è il caso in Liberia).

 

Quelle di maggior successo e più esaminate sono: Argentina (1983), Cile (1990), El Salvador (1992), Guatemala (1994) Haiti (1995). Fino ad oggi, la più importante e quella del Sudafrica del 1995 (Truth and Reconciliation Commissions (TRCs).

 

L’ultima TRCs in ordine decrescente è quella del Brasile introdotto con la legge novembre 2011 (HAYNER 2011). Strettamente correlate alle Commissioni per la verità sono le Commissioni d’inchiesta. Rispetto alle Commissioni per la verità, le Commissioni di inchiesta hanno una portata più limitata. Le loro indagini possono ad esempio essere limitate a specifici eventi, o aree geografiche specifiche di un paese.

 

Le Commissioni di verità costituiscono invece il punto di passaggio tra un passato caratterizzato da profonde divisioni ed un futuro basato sull’affermazione dei diritti umani, della democrazia e della coesistenza pacifica (ZURLINI PANZA 2010/2011, p. 83). Le Commissioni per la verità hanno lo scopo di svelare la verità su quello successo ed il suo mandato consiste in esaminare e riferire riguardo alle cause, le conseguenze e la natura delle violazioni dei diritti umani e del diritto umanitario nel corso di un determinato periodo di tempo ed in un determinato paese, o in relazione ad un particolare conflitto (ONU 2014 HR/PUB/13/5, p. 61; http://www.usip.org/).

 

A differenza dei procedimenti giudiziari (e, sul versante opposto delle amnistie) le Commissioni per la verità sono nate sul presupposto della riconciliazione “come veicoli principali della ricerca della verità e la rivelazione della verità in tempi di transizione” (ONU A/67/368, p. 8).

 

Le Commissioni hanno il compito di fare i conti con il passato. Per meglio comprendere e riconoscere la portata delle atrocità commesse, affrontare i cambiamenti che devono essere fatti e di prevenire gli abusi futuri. La ricostruzione di una verità storica in luogo di quella giudiziaria, senza affidarsi esclusivamente alle norme internazionali di inchiesta e giudizio “senza alcun legame diretto con l’implementazione dei processi penali e delle risposte punitive” (CERETTI, 2004, p. 3).

 

Elenco dei principali rapporti delle commissioni nazionali per la verità e la riconciliazione:

 

Dassin, Joan, ed. 1986. Torture in Brazil: A Report by the Archdiocese of Sao Paulo (Brasil: Nunca Mais, engl.). New York: Vintage Books.

 

Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica REMHI and Menschenrechtsbüro des Erzbistums Guatemala ODHAG, eds. 1998. Guatemala: Nie wieder – Nunca Mas. Aachen: Misereor.

 

Arquidiocese de São Paulo. 1985. Brasil nunca mais. Un relato para a história. Prefacio de Paulo Evaristo Arns. 18th Ed. Petropolis: Vozes.

 

CEH. 1999a. Guatemala: Memoria Del Silencio, Informe de la Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico, 12 Vol. Guatemala: Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico.

 

CEH. 1999b. Guatemala: Memory of Silence. Report of the Commission for Historical Clarification: Conclusions and Recommendations. Die Friedens-Warte 74,4: 511-47.

 

CIPAE. 1990. Nunca Más: La Dictadura de Stroessner y los Derechos Humanos. Asunción: Comité de Iglesias para Ayudas de Emergencia.

 

Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación. 1990. Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation (transl. by Phillip Berryman). Notre Dame, Ind.: Notre Dame Press.

 

CONADEP. 1985. Argentina Nunca Más. Buenos Aires: Commisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas.

 

CONADEP. 1986. Nunca Más: The Report of the Argentine National Commission on the Disappeared. New York: Farrar, Straus.

 

Servicio Paz y Justicia de Uruguay. 1989. Uruguay Nunca Más. Informe Sobre la Violación a los Derechos Humanos (1972-1985). Montevideo:

 

Servicio Paz y Justicia de Uruguay. 1992. Uruguay Nunca Mas: Human Rights Violations, 1972-1985 (transl. by Eliszabeth Hampsten). Temple University Press.

 

TRC-Report. 1998. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, Vol. 1-5. Cape Town: Juta.

 

UN-Security, Council. 1993. From Madness to Hope. The 12-Year War in El-Salvador: Report of the Commission on the Truth for El-Salvador. NewYork: U.N. Doc. 2/25500.

 

Wahrheits- und Versöhnungskommission Südafrika. 2000. Das Schweigen gebrochen: “Out of the Shadows”. Geschichte – Anhörungen – Perspektiven. Frankfurt a. M.: Brandes & Apsel.

 

 

Elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli scritti sull’argomento:

 

AA.VV. Il lato oscuro dei Diritti umani. Esigenze emancipatorie e logiche di dominio nella tutela giuridica dell’individuo. Publisher: Carlos III University of Madrid, Editorial Dykinson, 2014.

Adam, Heribert. 1998. Trading Justice for Truth. The World Today, January: 11-13.

 

Adolfo Ceretti (2004). Il perdono, riparazione e riconciliazione. Pubblicato in: “Ars Interpretandi”, 9, 2004.

 

AA.VV. Gentili e A. Lollini, L’esperienza delle commissioni per la verità e la riconciliazione: il caso sudafricano in una prospettiva giuridico-politica, in Crimini internazionali tra diritto e giustizia. Dai Tribunali Internazionali alle Commissioni Verità e Riconciliazione, a cura di G. Illuminati, L. Storoni, M. Virgilio, Torino, Giappichelli, 2000.

Amnesty International. 1995a. Memorandum to the Select Committee on Justice. Comments and Recommendations by Amnesty International on Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Bill. London: Amnesty International, 13 January 1995.

 

Amnesty International. 1995b. Argentina. The Right to the Full Truth. London: Amnety International.

 

Arnold, Irene, and Dierks, Tobias. 1999. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A Case Study in Diepkloof, Soweto. In South Africa 1997: Empirical approaches to a society in negotiation, edited by B. Von der Haar. Berlin: Institut für Soziologie der Freien Universität Berlin.

 

Ash, Timothy Garton. 1997. True Confessions. The New York Review of Books 44,12: 33-38.

 

Ash, Timothy Garton. 1998. The Truth About Dictatorship. The New York Review of Books 45,3: 35-40.

 

Asmal, Kader, Asmal, Louise, and Roberts, Ronals Suresh. 1996. Reconciliation Through Truth. A Reckoning of Apartheid’s Criminal Governance. Cape Town: David Philip.

 

Asmal, Kader. 1992. Victims, Survivors and Citizens – Human Rights, Reparations and Reconciliation. South African Journal on Human Rights 8,4: 491-511.

 

Asmal, Kader. 1994. Coping with the Past. Unisa Latin American Report 10,1: 22-27.

 

Bassiouni, M.C., & Morris, M. eds. (1996). Accountability for International Crime and Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59: (4). 1-283.

 

Berat, Lynn, and Shain, Yossi. 1995. Retribution or Truth-Telling in South Africa? Legacies of the Transitional Phase. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 163-89.

 

Biko, Ntsiki. 1996. Justice First. Index of Censorship 25,5: 67-68.

 

Bird, Edward, and Garda, Zureida. 1997a. Reporting the Truth Commission. Analysis of Media Coverage of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Johannesburg: Media Monitoring Project, February 1997.

 

Bird, Edward, and Garda, Zureida. 1997b. Reporting the Truth Commission. Gazette (Leiden, Netherl.) 59,4-5: 331

 

Blaser, Arthur W. 1992. How to Advance Human Rights Without Really Trying An Analysis of Non-governmental Tribunals. Human Rights Quarterly 14,3: 339-70.

 

Bollig, Annkathrin. 1995. Der südafrikanische “Wahrheitsausschuâ”. Ein Versuch der Vergangenheitsbewältigung. KAS-Auslandsinformationen 11,11: 53-75.

 

Boraine, Alex and Levy, Janet eds, eds. 1995. The Healing of a Nation? CapeTown: Justice in Transition.

 

Boraine, Alex and Scheffer, Ronel, eds. 1994. Dealing with the Past. Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. CapeTown: IDASA.

 

Boraine, Alex. 1994. Drahtseilakt. Südafrikas Regierung muß Wahrheitsfindung mit Versöhnung verbinden. Der Überblick 30,4: 102-4.

 

Botman, H. Russel and Petersen, Robin M., eds. 1996. To Remember and to Heal. Theological and Psychological Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

 

Bozzoli, Belinda. 1998. Public Ritual and Private Transition: The Truth Commission in Alexandra Township, South Africa 1996. African Studies 57,2: 167-95.

 

Braude, Claudia, and Spitz, Derek. 1997. Memory and the Spectre of International Justice: A Comment on AZAPO. South African Journal on Human Rights 13: 269-82.

 

Braude, Claudia. 1996. The Archbishop, the Private Detective and the Angel of History: The Production of South African Public Memory and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Current Writing 8,2: 39-65.

 

Bronkhort, Daan. 1995. Truth and Reconciliation. Obstacles and Opportunities for Human Rights. Amsterdam: Amnesty International-Dutch Section.

 

Brynard, Karin. 1997. The Media and the TRC: My Individual Declaration. Rhodes Journalism Review,November: 33-33.

 

Buergenthal, Thomas. 1994. The United Nations Truth commission for El Salvador. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 27,3: 497544

 

Cardenal, Rodolfo. 1992. Justice in Post-Cold War El Salvador: The Role of the Truth Commission. Journal of Third World Studies 9,2: 313338

 

Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation Report. 1993. trans. by Phillip E. Berryman. Center for Civil and Human Rights – Notre Dame University.

 

Cochrane, James, De Gruchy, John W., and Martin, Stephen, eds. 1999. Facing the Truth: South African Faith Communities and the Truth & Reconciliation Commission. Cape Town: David Philip.

 

Cohen, Stanley. 1995. Justice in Transition? Prospects for a Palestinian-Israeli Truth Commission. Middle East Report,May/June: 2-5.

 

CSVR. 1996. Attitudes of White South Africans Towards the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Apartheid Past, May 1996. Principal Investigators: Gunnar Theissen and Brandon Hamber. Johannesburg / Pretoria : Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation / South African Data Archive (SADA 0080).

 

De Klerk, Frederik W. 1998. The Last Trek – A new Beginning: The Autobiography. London: Macmillan.

 

De Riddeer, Trudy. 1997. The Trauma of Testifying: Deponents’ Difficult Healing Process. Track Two 6,3-4: 30-35.

 

Dobell, Lauren. 1997. Silence in Context: Truth and/or Reconciliation in Namibia. Journal of Southern African Studies 23,2

 

Doerfler, Kordula. 1996. Schwierige Suche nach Wahrheit. Eine Zwischenbilanz der Wahrhietskommission. afrika süd,5: 8-10.

 

Du Plessis, Lourens M. 1994. Observations on Amnesty or Indemnity for Acts Associated with Political Objectives in the Light of South Africa’s Transitional Constitution. Tydskrif vir hedendaagse Romeins-Hollandse reg 57,3: 473-81.

 

Du Toit, André. 1994. Laying the Past to Rest. Indicator SA 11,4: 63-69.

 

Du Toit, André. 1997. No Rest Without the Wicked: Assessing the Truth Commission. Indicator SA 14,1: 7-11.

 

Du Toit, André. 1998. Healing the Healers? The TRC’s Hearings on the Health Sector. Indicator SA 15,1: 13-18.

 

Du Toit, André. 1999. Perpetrator Findings as Artificial Even-handedness? The TRC’s Contested Judgements of Moral and Political Accountability for Gross Human Rights Violations. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.

 

Duchrow, Ulrich, ed. 1997. Wahrheit, Versöhnung und Neuanfang auch im Westen – oder nur im Süden und Osten? Bremen: Sonderdruck der Jungen Kirche – zeitschrift europäischer Christinnen und Christen.

 

Dugard, John. 1997a. Retrospective Justice: International Law and the South African Model. In Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law in New Democracies, edited by A.J. McAdams. Notre Dame, IN.: University of Notre Dame Press.

 

Dugard, John. 1997b. Is the Truth and Reconciliation Process Compatible with International Law? An Unanswered Question. South African Journal on Human Rights 13: 258-68.

 

Dugard, John. 1998. Reconciliation and Justice: the South African Experience. Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 8,2: 277-311.

 

Dyzenhaus, David. 1998. Truth, Reconciliation and the Apartheid Legal Order. Cape Town: Juta.

 

Ensalaco, Mark. 1994. Truth Commissions for Chile and El-Salvador. A Report and Assessment. Human Rights Quarterly 16,4: 656-75.

 

Garman, Anthea. 1997b. The Media and the TRC: Fragments of the Truth. Rhodes Journalism Review,November: 30-30.

 

Galtung Johan (2006), La trasformazione dei conflitti con mezzi pacifici, Torino: Centro Studi Sereno Regis

 

Gerloff, Roswith. 1998. Truth, a New Society and Reconciliation: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa from a German Perspective. Missionalia 26,1: 17-53.

 

Gibson, James L. and Gouws, Amanda. 1998. Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Attributions for Blame and the Struggle Over Apartheid. Paper presented at the “1998 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association” conference, Boston, Mass, 03 September 1998.

 

Goldstone, Richard J. 1996. Justice As a Tool for Peace-Making: Truth Commissions and International Criminal Tribunals. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 28,3: 485-503.

 

Giulia Zurlini Panza (2010/2011). Gestione dei conflitti: la Riconciliazione nei casi Kossovo e Israele-Palestina Tesi specialistica. Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia – Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, pp. 248.

 

Graybill, Lyn S. 1998a. Pursuit of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Africa Today.A Quarterly Review 45: 103-33.

 

Graybill, Lyn S. 1998b. South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Ethical and Theological Perspectives. Ethics and International Affairs 12: 43-62.

 

Hahn-Godeffroy, Emily. 1998. Die südafrikanische Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

 

Hamber, Brandon, ed. 1998. Past Imperfect: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland and Societies in Transition. Derry/Londonderry: INCORE, University of Ulster, The United Nations University.

 

Hamburger Institut für Sozialforschung. 1987. Nie wieder. Ein Bericht über Entführung, Folter und Mord durch die Militärdiktatur in Argentinien. Weinheim: Belz.

 

Harvard Law School Human Rights Program, ed. 1997. Truth Commissions: A Comparative Assessment: Interdisciplinary Discussion Held at the Harvard Law School in May 1996. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard Law School Human Rights Program.

 

Hayner, Priscilla B. 1994. 15 Truth Commissions – 1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study. Human Rights Quarterly 16,4: 597-655.

 

Hayner, Priscilla B. 1996a. Commissioning the Truth. Further Research Questions. Third World Quarterly 17,1: 19-29.

 

Hayner, Priscilla B. 1996b. International Guidelines for the Creation and Operation of Truth Commissions: A Preliminary Proposal. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 173-80.

 

Heinz, Wolfgang S. 1999. Wahrheit, Recht und Versöhnung: Zu den Erfahrungen mit Wahrheitskommissionen in Südamerika und Südafrika. Peripherie,73/74: 140-161.

 

Human Rights Watch. 1998. Recommendations to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Human Rights Watch. (1998). January 1998,

 

Human, Rights Watch. 1987. Truth and Partial Justice in Argentina. NewYork: Human Rights Watch.

 

Ignatieff, Michael. 1996. Articles of Faith. Index of Censorship 25,5: 110-122.

 

Jeffery, Anthea J. 1999. The Truth about the Truth Commission. Johannesburg: South African Institute for Race Relations.

 

Jowdy, Gregory. 1997. Truth Commissions in El Salvador and Guatemala: a Proposal for Truth in Guatemala. Boston College Third World Law Yournal 17,2: 285-330.

 

Kerschgens, Dorothea. 1997. Wieviel Wahrheit verträgt das Land? afrika süd,2: 14-16.

 

Kistner, Wolfgang. 1997. Wahrheit und Versöhnung im neuen Südafrika. In Wahrheit, Versöhnung und Neuanfang auch im Westen – oder nur im Süden und Osten?, edited by U. Duchrow. Bremen: Sonderdruck der Jungen Kirche – Zeitschrift europäischer Christinnen und Christen.

 

Klaaren, Jonathan. 1998. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the South African Judiciary, and Constitutionalism. African Studies 57,2: 197-208.

 

Koallapen, N. 1993. Accountability: The Debate in South Africa. Journal of African Law 37,1: 1-9.

 

Kritz, Neil J. 1996. Coming to Terms with Attrocities: A Review of Accountability Mechanisms for Mass Violations of Human Rights. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 127-52.

 

Krog, Antjie. 1998b. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission: A National Ritual? Missionalia 26,1: 5-16.

 

Kutz, Florian. 1999. Strafverzicht und Straferlaß für politische Straftäter in Südafrika: Von der Sharpeville-Amnestie bis zu den Amnestieverfahren der Wahrheits- und Versöhnungskomission. Unpublished Ph D. Thesis, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

 

Landsman, Stephan. 1996. Alternative Responses to Serious Human Rights Abuses: Of Prosecution and Truth Commissions. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 81-92.

 

Lapsley, M. 1998. Confronting the Past and Creating the Future. The Redemptive Value of Truth Telling. SOC RES 65: 741-58.

 

Lewin, Hugh. 1999. The TRC and the Media: The Next Agenda. Rhodes Journalism Review,March: 27-27.

 

Liebenberg, Ian. 1996. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa: Context, Future and Some Imponderables. South African Public Law 11: 123-59.

 

Liebenberg, Ian. 1997. Die Waarheids- en Versoeningskommissie (WVK) in Suid-Afrika en die implikasies daarvan vir ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse Historikerstreit en eitydse geskiedskrywing. Journal for Contemporary History/Joernaal vir Eietydse Geskiedenis 22,1: 98-114.

 

Little, David. 1999. A Different Kind of Justice: Dealing with Human Rights Violations in Transitional Societies. Ethics and International Affairs 13: 65

 

Loots, Jaco, and Du Plessis, Willemien. 1996. Die Waarheitskommissie: Nürnberg verhore of bevordering vannasionale eenheid en versoening? TSAR (ISSN 0257-7747,1: 154-60.

 

Lyons, Beth S. 1997. Between Nuremburg and Amnesia: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine 49,4: 5-22.

 

Maja-Pearce, Adewale. 1996. Binding the Wounds. Index of Censorship 25,5: 48-53.

 

Maluleke, Tinyiko Sam. 1997a. Dealing Lightly with the Wound of my People: The TRC Process in Theological Perspective. Missionalia 25,3: 324-43.

 

Maluleke, Tinyiko Sam. 1997b. Truth, National Unity and Reconciliation in South Africa Aspects of the Emerging Theological Agenda. Missionalia 25,1: 59-86.

 

Mamdani, M. (1998). When Does Reconciliation Turn Into a Denial of Justice? Reconciliation Social Jusitce/ Sam Nolutshungu Memorial Series, 1:

 

Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Reconciliation Without Justice. Southern African Review of Books,Nov/Dec: 3-5.

 

Marais, Hein. 1998. South Africa: Limits to Change: The Political Economy of Transformation. London: Zed Books.

 

Medico International, ed. 1998. Der Preis der Versöhnung: Südafrikas Auseinandersetzung mit der Wahrheitskommission. Frankfurt/M: Medico International.

 

Meiring, Piet. 1999. Chronicle of the Truth Commission: A Journey Through the Past and Present into the Future of South Africa. Vanderbijlpark: Carpe Diem Books.

 

Minow, Martha. 1998. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press.

 

Müller-Fahrenholz, Geiko. 1997. The Art of Forgiveness: Theological Reflections on Healing and Reconciliation. Geneva: WCC Publications.

 

Newham, Gareth. 1995. Truth and Reconciliation. Realising the Ideals. Indicator SA

 

Nino, Carlos S. 1996. Radical Evil on Trial. New Haven: Yale University Press.

 

Nolte, Detlef ed, ed. 1996. Vergangenheitsbewältigung in Lateinamerika. Frankfurt/M: Vervuert.

 

Nuttall, Sarah and Coetzee, Carli, eds. 1998. Negotiating the Past: The Making of Memory in South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

 

Pankhurst, Donna. 1999. Issues of Justice and Reconciliation in Complex Political Emergencies. Conceptualizing Reconciliation, Justice and Peace. Third World Quarterly 20,1: 239-56.

 

Parker, Peter. 1996. The Politics of Indemnities, Truth Telling and Reconciliation in South Africa. Ending Apartheid without Forgetting. Human Rights Law Journal 17,1/2: 1-13.

 

Pasqualucci, Jo M. 1994. The Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth: Truth Commissions, Impunity and the Inter-American Human Rights System. Boston University International Law Journal 12: 321-70.

 

Popkin, Margaret, and Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. 1995. Truth as Justice: Investigatory Commissions in Latin America. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 79-116.

 

Ratner, Steven R., and Abrams, Jason S. 1997. Accountability for Human Rights Attrocities in International Law. Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

Rickard, C. 1999. Church and State: The Faith Community and the TRC. Indicator SA 16,1: 42-44.

 

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. 1999. Truth Commissions and Amnesties in Latin America: The Second Generation. Contemporary International Law Issues 92: 313

 

Salazar Volkmann, Christian. 1999. Erinnern oder vergessen? Auswirkungen der Menschenrechtsberichte in Guatemala. Der Überblick 35,3: 56-61.

 

Sanders, Mark. 1998. Ambiguities of Mourning: Law, Custom, Literature and Women before South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Law Text Culture 4,2: 105-51.

 

Sandoval, Leopoldo. 1990. Die Nationale Versöhnungskommission von Guatemala. Lateinamerika: Analysen, Daten, Dokumentation 14: 89-100.

 

Sarkin, Jeremy. 1996. The Trails and Tribulations of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. South African Journal on Human Rights 12,4: 617-49.

 

Sarkin, Jeremy. 1997. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. Commonwealth Law Bulletin 23,1-2: 528-42.

 

Sarkin, Jeremy. 1999. The Necessity and Challenges of Establishing a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Rwanda. Human Rights Quarterly 21,3: 767-823.

 

Schwan, G. 1998. The Healing Value of Truth Telling Chances and Social Conditions in a Secularized World. SOC RES 65: 725-40.

 

Slye, Ronald C. 1999. Apartheid as a Crime Against Humanity: A Submission to the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Michigan Journal of Internationa Law 20,2: 267

 

Smit, Dirkie. 1995. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission – Tentative Religious and Theological Perspectives. Journal of Theology for Southern Africa,No90: 42064

 

Soyinka, Wole. 1999. The Burdon of Memory, the Muse of Forgiveness. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Stack, Louise. 1998. The State Security Council, the Courts, and the TRC. Indicator SA 15,1: 19-22.

 

Taylor, Jane. 1998. Ubu and the Truth Commission. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.

 

Taylor, Lucy. 1993. Human Rights in the Process of Redemocratisation: Chile’s Rettig Report. Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Glasgow, Occasional Paper No. 55.

 

Theissen, Gunnar. 1998b. Schwarze Seite für De Klerk: Südafrikas Wahrheits- und Versöhnungskommission hat ihren Bericht vorgelegt. afrika süd,6: 8-12.

 

Theissen, Gunnar. 1998c. Amnesty for Apartheid Crimes? The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and International Law. Unpublished LL. M. Thesis, University of the Western Cape.

 

Tomuschat, Christian. 1999. Fehlschlag oder Erfolg? Eine Bilanz der Arbeit der Wahrheitskommission in Guatemala. Die Friedens-Warte 74,4: 433-55.

 

TRC-Report. 1998. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, Vol. 1-5. Cape Town: Juta.

 

Tutu, Desmond. 1999. No Future without Forgiveness. New York, NY: Doubleday.

 

UN-Security, Council. 1993. From Madness to Hope. The 12-Year War in El-Salvador: Report of the Commission on the Truth for El-Salvador. NewYork: U.N. Doc. 2/25500.

 

Van der Merwe, Hugo, Dewhirst, Polly, and Hamber, Brandon. 1999. Non-governmental Organisations and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: An Impact Assessment. Politikon 26,1: 55-79.

 

Van der Merwe, Hugo. 1999. The TRC and Community Reconciliation. An Analysis of Competing Strategies and Conceptualisations. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, George Madison University, Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution.

 

Van Zyl, Paul. 1999. Justice in Practice – Dilemmas of Transitional Justice: The Case of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Journal of International Affairs 52,2: 647

 

Venter, Francois. 1997. Die verfassungsmäßige Überprüfung der Rechtsgrundlagen von Südafrikas “Truth and Reconciliation Commission”. Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 57,1: 147-57.

 

Verwoerd, Wilhelm. 1996. Continuing the Discussion: Reflections from within the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Current Writing 8,2: 66-85.

 

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. 1995. Telling One Another Stories: Towards a Theology of Reconciliation. In Many Cultures, One Nation. Festschrift for Beyers Naudé, edited by C. Villa-Vicencio and C. Niehaus. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

 

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. 1998a. A Different Kind of Justice: The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Contemporary Justice Review 1: 407-28.

 

Wahrheits- und Versöhnungskommission Südafrika. 2000. Das Schweigen gebrochen: “Out of the Shadows”. Geschichte – Anhörungen – Perspektiven. Frankfurt a. M.: Brandes & Apsel.

 

Weissbrodt, David, and Fraser, Paul W. 1992. Report of the Chilean National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation. Human Rights Quarterly 14,4: 601-22.

 

Werle, Gerhard. 1996a. The South African Rechtsstaat and the Apartheid past. Verfassung und Recht in Übersee 29,1: 58-72.

 

Werle, Gerhard. 1996b. Without Truth, No Reconciliation. The South African Rechtsstaat and the Apartheid Past. Verfassung und Recht in Übersee 29: 58-72.

 

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