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GIUSTIZIA DI TRANSIZIONE – TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE

La transitional justice è un concetto ampio e dinamico, multidimensionale e complesso, flessibile, in osmosi con un tessuto di altri diritti umani fondamentali – interdipendenti e interconnessi – per cui diventa difficile, allo stato attuale, individuare una teoria organica di riferimento.

 

Considerata l’ampiezza di significato che il termine ha assunto, anche a causa dei diversi contesti storici e culturali in cui ha trovato applicazione, si potrebbe dire che siamo in presenza di una nozione intrinsecamente controversa, pur avendo un contenuto concettuale comunemente condiviso da tutti coloro che cercano di definirne il significato.

 

Il tentativo di sottoporre la giustizia di transizione a uno schema unitario si rivela oggi complicato, al di là di tutti le cliché analitici e di tutti i contenuti dogmatizzati. La giustizia di transizione è una disciplina euristica, che può contribuire come principio euristico allo sviluppo delle altre singole scienze.

 

Con il termine giustizia di transizione, in su definizione più accettata nel panorama internazionale, si suole fare riferimento all’insieme di misure giudiziarie e non giudiziarie in materia di diritti dell’uomo approvate dagli Stati in transizione verso lo Stato di Diritto e l’affermazione della democrazia per far fronte alle gravi violazioni dei diritti umani e delle norme umanitarie avvenute durante un precedente regime illiberale o nel corso di un conflitto interno, il cui obiettivo prioritario è assicurare gli sforzi di pace e risoluzione dei conflitti, una piena giustizia riparatrice alle vittime e alle comunità colpite, promuovere la guarigione, la cicatrizzazione delle ferite e la riconciliazione, compreso i profili di responsabilità di coloro che hanno perpetrato gravi violazioni dei diritti umani, secondo modalità volte a prevenire, tra l’altro, abusi futuri e ripristinare la fiducia nelle istituzioni dello Stato e promuovere lo Stato di diritto ed il rispetto dei diritti individuali e collettivi, ivi comprese le possibilità di pace e democrazia. I requisiti preliminari per l’attivazione dei meccanismi di giustizia di transizione sono pertanto un conflitto armato interno, una violenza politica generalizzata, la crisi di diritti umani, una situazione di crisi democratica e la gravità del problema.

 

La giustizia di transizione si presenta anche per così dire «naturalmente» legata alla nozione di giustizia politica, perché indica un recupero forte delle prerogative statuali, il ripristino della sovranità e la democrazia partecipata, a scapito del conflitto.  Lo scopo della giustizia di transizione è quello di confrontarsi con lasciti di abuso in modo ampio e olistico un approccio che comprende la giustizia penale, la giustizia riparativa, la giustizia sociale e la giustizia economica (FREEMAN 2005).

 

Benché la giustizia di transizione non abbia offerto un regime giuridico specifico, né uno schema concettuale, né un modello metodologico tale da attribuire allo stesso concetto di “giustizia di transizione” un’esistenza giuridica vera e propria, esso si inserisce comunque a pieno titolo nel più ampio contesto degli strumenti convenzionali di giustizia internazionale e sul nuovo assetto della giustizia per l’amministrazione dei conflitti.

 

Elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli scritti sull’argomento:

Albon, Mary. 1994. The Project on Justice in Times of Transition. New York: The Foundation for a Civil Society.

 

Ash, Timothy Garton. 1997. True Confessions. The New York Review of Books 44,12: 33-38.

 

Aspen, Institute, ed. 1989. State Crimes. Punishment or Pardon: Papers and Reports of the Conference, November 4-6, 1988, Wye Centre, Maryland. Queenstown, Md.: Aspen Institute.

 

Barahona, de Brito. 1993. Truth and Justice in the Consolidation of Democracy in Chile and Uruguay. Comparative Politics 46,4: 579-93.

 

Bartoli, Roberto. La giustizia di transizione: amnistia, giurisdizione, riconciliazione. Firenze: Firenze University Press, 2011.

 

Bassiouni, M. Cherif. 1996. Searching for Peace and Achieving Justice: The Need for Accountability. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 9-28.

 

Bassiouni, M.C., & Morris, M.H. eds . (1996). Accountability for International Crime and Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59: (4). 1-283.

 

Benomar, Jamal. 1993. Confronting the Past Justice after Transitions. Journal of Democracy 4,1: 3-14.

 

Berat, Lynn. 1993. Prosecuting Human Rights Violators From a Predecessor Regime. Guidelines for a Transformed South Africa. Boston College Third World Law Yournal 13,2: 199-231.

 

Boed, Roman. 1998. An Evaluation of the Legality and Efficacy of Lustration as a Tool of Transitional Justice. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37,2: 357-402.

 

Boraine, Alex and Scheffer, Ronel, eds. 1994. Dealing with the Past. Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. CapeTown: IDASA.

 

Bronkhort, Daan. 1995. Truth and Reconciliation. Obstacles and Opportunities for Human Rights. Amsterdam: Amnesty International-Dutch Section.

 

Carter Center of Emroy University. 1992. Investigating Abuses and Introducing Safeguards in the Democratisation Process. Conference Convened 6-7 July 1992. Conference Report Series 61.

 

Carver, Richard. 1990. Called to Account: How African Governments Investigate Human Rights Violations. African Affairs 89,356: 356-91.

 

Chapman, Audrey R. 1999. Coming to Terms with the Past: Truth, Justice and Reconciliation. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.

 

Clara Sandoval Villalba (2011). Transitional Justice: Key Concepts, Processes and Challenges, Briefing Paper (IDCR-BP-07/11), p. 13.

 

Cohen, Stanley. 1993. Human-Rights and Crimes of the State. The Culture of Denial. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 26,2: 97-115.

 

Cohen, Stanley. 1995. Crimes of the State Accountability, Lustration and the Policing of the Past. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 7-50.

 

De Greiff, Pablo. 1996. Trial and Punishment, Pardon and Oblivion. On Two Inadequate Policies for the Treatment of Former Human Rights Abusers. Philosophy and Social Criticism 22: 93-111.

 

Dugard, John. 1999. Dealing with Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option? The Third Manfred Lachs Memorial Lecture.

 

Edelenbosch, Carla. 1994. Human Rights Violations – A Duty to Prosecute? Leiden Journal of International Law 7,2: 5-22.

 

Francesco Viola (2009). Giustizia e perdono: riflessioni in tema di transitional justice. www1.unipa.it/viola/Transitional_Justice_Perdono.pdf

 

Garreton M., Manuel Antonio. 1994. Human-Rights in Processes of Democratisation. Journal of Latin American Studies 26: 221-34.

 

Grossman, Claudio. 1992. Disappearances in Honduras. The Need for Direct Victim Representation in Human Rights Litigation. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 15,3: 363-91.

 

  1. Mannozzi, G.A. Lodigiani, Formare al diritto e alla giustizia: per una autonomia scientifico-didattica della giustizia riparativa in ambito universitario, in Riv. it. dir. proc. pen., 2014, pp. 134 – 177.

 

Hayner, Priscilla B. 1994. 15 Truth Commissions – 1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study. Human Rights Quarterly 16,4: 597-655.

 

Hayner, Priscilla B. 1996. Commissioning the Truth. Further Research Questions. Third World Quarterly 17,1: 19-29.

 

Hesse, Carla and Post, Robert, eds. 1999. Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

 

Huyse, Luc. 1994. A Devil’s Choice: Dilemmas of Backward-Looking Justice. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 2: 120-140.

 

Huyse, Luc. 1995. Justice After Transition: On the Choices Successor Elites Make in Dealing with the Past. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 51-78.

 

Ignatieff, Michael. 1996. Articles of Faith. Index of Censorship 25,5: 110-122.

 

Index of Censorship (1996) 25,5. Wounded Nations, Broken Lives: Truth Commissions and War Tribunals.

 

König, Helmut, Kohlstruck, Michael, and Wöll, Andreas, eds. 1998. Vergangenheitsbewältigung am Ende des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

 

Kritz, Neil J. 1996. Coming to Terms with Attrocities: A Review of Accountability Mechanisms for Mass Violations of Human Rights. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 127-52.

 

Kritz, Neil, ed. 1995. Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. 3 Volumes. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace Press.

 

Landsman, Stephan. 1996. Alternative Responses to Serious Human Rights Abuses: Of Prosecution and Truth Commissions. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 81-92.

 

Little, David. 1999. A Different Kind of Justice: Dealing with Human Rights Violations in Transitional Societies. Ethics and International Affairs 13: 65

 

Malamud-Goti, Jaime. 1990. Transitional Governments in the Breach Why Punish State Criminals? Human Rights Quarterly 12,1: 1

 

Malamud-Goti, Jaime. 1998. Dignity, Vengeance, and Fostering Democracy. The University of Miami interAmerican Law Review 29,3: 417-50.

 

Marxen, Klaus, and Werle, Gerhard. 1999. Die strafrechtliche Aufarbeitung von DDR-Unrecht: Eine Bilanz. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

 

Mark Freeman (2005). Making reconciliation work: the role of parliaments published by the Inter Parliamentary Union and the Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. www.ipu.org/PDF/…/reconciliation_en.pdf

 

McAdams, A. James, ed. 1997. Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law in New Democracies. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

 

Méndez, Juan E. 1997. Accountability for Past Abuses. Human Rights Quarterly 19: 255-82.

 

Michnik, Adam, and Havel, V. 1993. Justice or Revenge? Journal of Democracy 4,1: 20-27.

 

Minow, Martha. 1998. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press.

 

Moran, John P. 1994. The Communist Torturers of Eastern-Europe – Prosecute and Punish or Forgive and Forget. COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST STUDIES 27,1: 95-109.

 

Nanda, Ved P. 1998. Civil and Political Sanctions as an Accountability Mechanism for Massive Violations of Human Rights. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy 26,3: 389-97.

 

Neier, Aryeh. 1990. What Should be Done About the Guilty? The New York Review of Books,1Febr1990: 32-34.

 

Nino, Carlos S. 1996. Radical Evil on Trial. New Haven: Yale University Press.

 

Nolte, Detlef, ed. 1996. Vergangenheitsbewältigung in Lateinamerika. Frankfurt/M: Vervuert.

 

Offe, Claus. 1993. Disqualification, Retribution, Restitution. Dilemas of Justice in Post-Communist Transitions. The Journal of Political Philosophy 1,1: 17-44.

 

Offe, Claus. 1994. Rechtswege der “Vergangenheitspolitik” Disqualifizierung, Bestrafung, Restitution. In Der Tunnel am Ende des Lichtes. Erkundungen der politischen Transformation im neuen Osten, edited by C. Offe. Frankfurt/M: Campus.

 

Orentlicher, Diane F. 1991. Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime. The Yale Law Journal 100,8: 2537-615.

 

Panizza, F. 1995. Human-Rights in the Processes of Transition and Consolidation of Democracy in Latin-America. POLITICAL STUDIES 43,NSI: 168-88.

 

Pankhurst, Donna. 1999. Issues of Justice and Reconciliation in Complex Political Emergencies. Conceptualizing Reconciliation, Justice and Peace. Third World Quarterly 20,1: 239-56.

 

Pion-Berlin, David. 1994. To Prosecute or to Pardon. Human Rights Decisions in the Latin American Southern Cone. Human Rights Quarterly 16,1: 105-30.

 

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, ed. 1995. Impunity and Human Rights in International Law and Practice. NewYork: Oxford University Press.

 

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. 1990. State Responsibility to Investigate and Prosecute Grave Human Rights Violations in International Law. California Law Review 78: 451-513.

 

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. 1996. Combating Impunity: Some Thoughts on the Way Forward. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 93-102.

 

Rosenberg, Tina. 1995a. Overcoming the Legacies of Dictatorship. Foreign Affairs 74,3: 134-53.

 

Rosenberg, Tina. 1995b. The Haunted Land. Facing Europe’s Ghosts after Communism. Random House.

 

Rwelamira, Medard R. and Werle, Gerhard, eds. 1996. Confronting Past Injustices: Approaches to Amnesty, Punishment, Reparation and Restitution in South Africa and Germany. Durban: Butterworths.

 

Scharf, Michael P. 1996. The Letter of Law: The Scope of the International Obligation to Prosecute Human Rights Crimes. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 41-62.

 

Siegel, Richard Lewis. 1998. Transitional Justice: A Decade of Debate and Experience. Human Rights Quarterly 20: 431-54.

 

Teitel, Ruti. 1997. Transitional Jurisprudence: The Role of Law in Political Transformation. The Yale Law Journal 106: 2009-80.

 

Van Zyl, Paul. 1999. Justice in Practice – Dilemmas of Transitional Justice: The Case of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Journal of International Affairs 52,2: 647

 

Welsh, Helga A. 1996. Dealing with the communist past.Central and East European experiences after 1990. Europe-Asia Studies 48,3: 413-28.

 

Weschler, Lawrence. 1998. A Miracle, a Universe: Settling Accounts with Torturers. 2nd Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Zalaquett, José. 1989. Confronting Human Rights Violations Committed by Former Governments: Principals Applicable and Political Constraints. In State Crimes: Punishment or Pardon, edited by Aspen Institute. Queenstown, Md.: Aspen Institute.

 

Zalaquett, José. 1990. Confronting Human Rights Violations Committed by Former Governments: Principles Applicable and Political Constraints. Hamline Law Review 13,3: 623-60.

 

Zalaquett, José. 1992. Balancing Ethical Imperatives and Political Constraints: The Dilemma of New Democracies Confronting Past Human Rights Violations. Hastings Law Journal 43,6: 1425-38.