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MECCANISMI DI EPURAZIONE E GIUSTIZIA DI TRANSIZIONE- LUSTRATION MECHANISM AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE

Il termine lustrazione deriva dalle parole latine lustratio e lustratum, che significa purificazione. Nella scienza giuridica e politica, lustrazione è definita come un processo legale che autorizza il governo in formazione a vagliare azioni per la squalifica dei funzionari pubblici che sono stati collaboratori dei servizi segreti durante i precedenti regimi non democratici (Cyntia HORNE, 2002, p.2). Il termine lustrazione è spesso usato in modo intercambiabile con il termine vagliare, che, secondo le Nazioni Unite, “comporta un processo formale per l’identificazione e la rimozione di individui responsabili di abusi, soprattutto da parte della polizia, i servizi carcerari, l’esercito e la magistratura”. (UN Doc. S / 2004/616. Lo stato di diritto e della giustizia di transizione nelle società di conflitto e post-conflitto. Rapporto del Segretario generale delle Nazioni Unite, 23 agosto 2004, par. 52).

 

Favorire la fiducia: i quattro elementi della giustizia di transizione sono volti a promuovere la fiducia ripristinando quella nelle istituzioni statali e a contribuire al riaffermarsi di valori sociali in virtù dei quali non saranno tollerati violazioni o abusi, né se ne consentirà la ripetizione. Si contribuisce così al ripristino del tessuto sociale della società.

 

In questo sitio web, si offrono informazioni sui paesi dell’UE che hanno adottato questo tipo di misure per affrontare il loro passato di repressione:

 

http://www.proyectos.cchs.csic.es/transitionaljustice/content/lustration-mechanisms

 

Elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli scritti sull’argomento:

 

Adam Czarnota,  “Lustration, Decommunisation and rule of  law”,  Hague Journal of Rule of Law.  Hague: Cambridge University Press, 2008, 310.

 

Bertschi, Charles C. 1995. Lustration and the Transition to Democracy. The Cases of Poland and Bulgaria. East European Quarterly 2,4: 435-51.

 

Blankenburg, Erhard. 1995. The Purge of Lawyers after the Breakdown of the East German Communist Regime. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 223-43.

 

Boed, Roman. 1998. An Evaluation of the Legality and Efficacy of Lustration as a Tool of Transitional Justice. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37,2: 357-402.

 

Bren, Paulina. 1993. Lustration in the Czech and Slovak Republics. RFE/RL Research Reports 2,29: 16-22.

 

Brian Grodsky, „Beyond Lustration: Truth – Seeking Efforts in the Post – Communist Space“, Taiwan Journal of Democracy Volume 5 No 2, Taipei: Taiwan Journal of Democracy, 2009.

 

Cohen, Stanley. 1995. Crimes of the State Accountability, Lustration and the Policing of the Past. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 7-50.

 

Cyntia Horne and Margaret Levi, Does Lustration Promote Trustworthy Governance? An Exploration of the Experience of Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest: Budapest Collegium /Trust and Honesty Project, 2002, 2.

 

Cyntia Horne and Margaret Levi, Does Lustration Promote Trustworthy Governance? An Exploration of the Experience of Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest: Budapest Collegium /Trust and Honesty Project, 2002, 4.

 

David R. “Lustration Laws in Action: The Motives and Evaluation of Lustration Policy in the Czech Republic and Poland (1989-2001).” Law & Social Inquiry, 28(2), 387-439.

 

Dariusz Grzyzlo, Lustration. The Case of Poland, Krakow: Instytut Filozofii, 2007.

 

Deutscher Bundestag, ed. 1999. Vierter Tätigkeitsbericht des Bundesbeauftragten für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik – 1999. Bonn: Dt. Bundestag, Drucksache 14/1300 vom 12.07.1999.

 

Ellis, Mark S. 1996. Purging the Past: The Current State of Lustration Laws in the Former Communist Bloc. Law and Contemporary Problems 59,4: 181-96.

 

Kuepper, Herbert. 1995. Das ungarische Gesetz ueber die Angehoerigen der ehemaligen GeheimpolizeiXXIII/1994. Osteuropa-Recht 41,3: 211-24.

 

Los, Maria. 1995. Lustration and Truth Claims: Unfinished Revolutions in Central Europe. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 117-61.

 

Oltay, Edith. 1994. Hungary’s screening law. RFE/RL Research Report 3,15: 13-15.

 

Marek Safjan, “Transtional Justice: The Polish Example, The Case of Lustration”, European Journal of Legal Studies. Florence: European University Institute, 2007.

 

Marko Krtolica, Lustration as mechanism of transitional justice: Lustration as mechanism of transitional justice: Dilemmas and and challenges Iustinianus Primus Law Review

№ 08 – volume V – Winter 2013. http://law-review.mk/pdf/08/Marko%20Krtolica.pdf

 

Natalia Letki, „The Consequences of Lustration for Democratization: The Experience of East Central Europe “, Past and Present: Consequences for Democratisation, Thessaloniki: Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeast Europe, 2004.

 

Tomas Besak, “An Explanation of the Adoption Timing and Severity of Lustration in Central and Eastern Europe”, Rational choice theory and applications to political science, Dublin: European Consortium of Political Research, 2010.

 

Roenne, Hans Hubertus von. 1997. “Politisch untragbar …?”: Die Überprüfung von Richtern und Staatsanwälten der DDR im Zuge der Vereinigung Deutschlands. Berlin: Arno Spitz.

 

Schumann, Silke. 1995. Vernichten oder Offenlegen? Zur Entstehung des Stasi-Unterlagen-Gesetzes. Dokumentation der öffentlichen Debatte 1990/1991. Berlin: Bundesbeauftragter für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes.

 

Schwartz, Herman. 1994. Lustration in Eastern Europe. Parker School Journal of East European Law 1,2: 141-71.

 

Stichcombe, Arthur L. 1995. Lustration as a Problem of the Social Basis of Constitutionalism. Law and Social Inquiry 20,1: 245-73.

 

Yasmann, V. 1993. Legislation on screening and state security in Russia. RFE/RL Research Report 2,32: 11-16.

 

Wojciech Sadurski, Decommunisation, Lustration and Constitutional Continuity: Dilemmas of Transitional Justice in Central Europe, Florence: European University Institute, 2003, 2