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RICONCILIAZIONE E GIUSTIZIA TRANSIZIONALE – RECONCILIATION AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE

La riconciliazione nazionale e la coesistenza pacifica è lo strumento di base per una ricostruzione efficace, per cui la sua qualità e la sua articolazione sono di importanza vitale. Essa deve puntare all’instaurazione della preminenza del diritto attraverso misure giudiziarie e non giudiziarie che devono includere la partecipazione attiva di tutti gli attori del conflitto e di tutti settori politico, economico e sociale. Pertanto, la partecipazione della società civile, le vittime, le persone appartenenti a gruppi minoritari, donne e giovani in tali processi gioca un ruolo importante.

Contribuire alla riconciliazione: un processo di giustizia di transizione che combatte l’impunità, offre riconoscimento alle vittime, istituisce lo stato di diritto e favorisce la fiducia persegue anche l’obiettivo di contribuire a un processo di riconciliazione. La riconciliazione mira a ridefinire le relazioni tra le persone e a permettere alla società di lasciarsi alle spalle un passato diviso per un futuro condiviso. Non saranno sufficienti solo misure giuridiche e istituzionali. Potrebbero essere necessarie anche iniziative rivolte alla dimensione più personale di una transizione, come scuse ufficiali, monumenti commemorativi e la riforma del sistema d’istruzione. La riconciliazione non deve tuttavia essere considerata un’alternativa alla giustizia, o un obiettivo che può essere raggiunto indipendentemente dall’attuazione globale dei quattro elementi della giustizia di transizione di seguito esposti in dettaglio. Inoltre, sebbene la giustizia di transizione rappresenti una parte essenziale del processo di riconciliazione, altri elementi, come la sicurezza e lo sviluppo, sono altrettanto importanti.

 

La giustizia di transizione post-bellica è legata all’iniziativa tesa ad agevolare il ritorno ad una situazione duratura di non violenza e stabilità, compresa l’attuazione degli obiettivi di ripristino della pace e della costruzione di uno stato democratico per raggiungere un obiettivo finale: rafforzare la posizione dello Stato e della sua popolazione per un futuro migliore e più pacifico. La giustizia di transizione è, pertanto, legata al processo di risanamento democratico e sociale nelle società post conflitto.

 

Elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli scritti sull’argomento:

 

Akhavan, Payam. 1997. Justice and Reconciliation in the Great Lakes Region of Africa: The Contribution of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 7,2: 325-48.

 

Asmal, Kader, Asmal, Louise, and Roberts, Ronals Suresh. 1996. Reconciliation Through Truth. A Reckoning of Apartheid’s Criminal Governance. Cape Town: David Philip.

 

Asmal, Kader. 1992. Victims, Survivors and Citizens – Human Rights, Reparations and Reconciliation. South African Journal on Human Rights 8,4: 491-511.

 

Becker, David. 1992. Ohne Haß keine Versöhnung. Das Trauma der Verfolgten. Freiburg i. Breisg.: Kore.

 

Boraine, Alex. 1994. Drahtseilakt. Südafrikas Regierung muß Wahrheitsfindung mit Versöhnung verbinden. Der Überblick 30,4: 102-4.

 

Botman, H. Russel and Petersen, Robin M., eds. 1996. To Remember and to Heal. Theological and Psychological Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

 

Bronkhort, Daan. 1995. Truth and Reconciliation. Obstacles and Opportunities for Human Rights. Amsterdam: Amnesty International-Dutch Section.

 

Chapman, Audrey R. 1999. Coming to Terms with the Past: Truth, Justice and Reconciliation. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.

 

Cochrane, James, De Gruchy, John W., and Martin, Stephen, eds. 1999. Facing the Truth: South African Faith Communities and the Truth & Reconciliation Commission. Cape Town: David Philip.

 

De Waal, V. 1990. The Politics of Reconciliation. Zimbabwe’s First Decade. London/CapeTown: Hurst & Company / David Philip.

 

Dobell, Lauren. 1997. Silence in Context: Truth and/or Reconciliation in Namibia. Journal of Southern African Studies 23,2

 

Duchrow, Ulrich, ed. 1997. Wahrheit, Versöhnung und Neuanfang auch im Westen – oder nur im Süden und Osten? Bremen: Sonderdruck der Jungen Kirche – zeitschrift europäischer Christinnen und Christen.

 

Dugard, John. 1998. Reconciliation and Justice: The South African Experience. Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 8,2: 277-311.

 

Dworkin, Anthony. 1996. The World in Judgement: Do International War Crimes Tribunals Help or Hinder National Reconciliation? Index of Censorship 25,5: 137-44.

 

Edelstein, Jayni. 1994. Rights, Reparations and Reconciliation: Some Comparative Notes. Seminar-Paper No. 6. Johannesburg: CSVR, 27 July 1994.

 

Evangelische, Haupt. 1990. Versöhnung, aktuelle Aspekte eines biblischen Themas. Berlin: Evang. Haupt-Bibelgesellschaft.

 

Feldman, Lily Gardner. 1999. Germany’s Reconciliation with France, Israel, Poland and the Czech Republic. Die Friedens-Warte 74,4: 477-90.

 

Frey, Christofer. 1993. Versöhnung als Neubestimmung der Zukunft. Glaube und Lernen. Zeitschrift für theologische Urteilsbildung 8,1: 19-34.

 

Gagiano, Jannie. 1997. Truth and Reconciliation. Political Issues – Institute for Futures Research, Univ.of Stellenbosch 7,3: 1-5.

 

Galaway, B., and Hudson, J. 19?? Criminal-Justice, Restitution and Reconciliation.

 

George, A. Raymond. 1988. The Ministry of Reconciliation in the Evangelical Tradition. studia liturgica 18,1: 112

 

Gerloff, Roswith. 1998. Truth, a New Society and Reconciliation: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa from a German Perspective. Missionalia 26,1: 17-53.

 

Gibson, James L. and Gouws, Amanda. 1998. Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Attributions for Blame and the Struggle Over Apartheid. Paper presented at the “1998 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association” conference, Boston, Mass, 03 September 1998.

 

Goodman, Tanya and Price, Max. 1999. Continuing the TRC Project: The Use of Internal Reconciliation Commissions to Facilitate Organisational Transformation – The Case of the Wits Health Sciences Faculty. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.

 

Graybill, Lyn S. 1998. Pursuit of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Africa Today.A Quarterly Review 45: 103-33.

 

Green, Robin. 1990. A Step too Far. Explorations into Reconciliation. London:

 

Hamber, Brandon, Maepa, Traggy, Mofokeng, Tlhoki, and Van der Merwe, Hugo. 1998. Survivors’ Perceptions of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Suggestions for the Final Report. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

 

Hamber, Brandon. 1995. Dealing with the Past and the Psychology of Reconciliation. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a Psychological Perspective. Johannesburg: CSVR, 27 June 1995.

 

Hamber, Brandon. 1997. Dr. Jekyll and Mr “Hide”: Problems of Violence Prevention and Reconciliation in South Africa’s Transition to Democracy. In Perspectives on Aggression and Violence in South Africa, edited by E. Bornman, R. Van Eeden, and M. Wentzel. Pretoria: Human Science and Reseach Council.

 

Hay, Mark. 1998. Ukubuyisana: Reconciliation in South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: Cluster Publications.

 

Heinrich, Lars. 1993. Versöhnung im Neuen Testament. Glaube und Lernen.Zeitschrift für theologische Urteilsbildung 8,1: 8

 

Heinz, Wolfgang S. 1999. Wahrheit, Recht und Versöhnung: Zu den Erfahrungen mit Wahrheitskommissionen in Südamerika und Südafrika. Peripherie,73/74: 140-161.

 

Hendriks, H. J. 1996. Diversity and Pluralism in the Church: A Theory for Enhancing Reconciliation and Unity. Ned Geree Teologiese Tydskrif ??,??: 386-94.

 

Jung, Courtney. 1995. Ruyterwacht and Reconciliation. Indicator SA

 

Kaiser, Thomas. 1996. Versöhnung und Gerechtigkeit: Das Konzept der Versöhnung und seine Kritik in Südafrika. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag.

 

Kistner, Wolfgang. 1997. Wahrheit und Versöhnung im neuen Südafrika. In Wahrheit, Versöhnung und Neuanfang auch im Westen – oder nur im Süden und Osten?, edited by U. Duchrow. Bremen: Sonderdruck der Jungen Kirche – Zeitschrift europäischer Christinnen und Christen.

 

Kistner, Wolfgang. 1999. Reconciliation in Dispute. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.

 

Kneifel, Theo. 1998. Zwischen Versöhnung und Gerechtigkeit: Der Spagat der Kirchen nach der Apartheid. Hamburg/Aachen: Evangelisches Missionswerk / Missio.

 

Larrabee, F. Stephen. 1978. The Politics of Reconciliation. Columbia Univers. Press (Reprint: Ann Arbor Univ. Microfilms 1979).

 

Liebenberg, Ian, and Duvenage, Pieter. 1996. Can the Deep Political Divisions of South African Society be Healed? A Philosophical and Political Perspective. Politeia 15,1: 48-61.

 

Maja-Pearce, Adewale. 1996. Binding the Wounds. Index of Censorship 25,5: 48-53.

 

Makoa, F. K. 1990. The Meaning of Reconciliation and Unity in Lesotho of the 1980’s: Implications for Future Constitutional Developments. Lesotho Law Journal 6,1: 289-305.

 

Maluleke, Tinyiko Sam. 1997. Truth, National Unity and Reconciliation in South Africa Aspects of the Emerging Theological Agenda. Missionalia 25,1: 59-86.

 

Mamdani, M. (1998). When Does Reconciliation Turn Into a Denial of Justice? Reconciliation Social Jusitce/ Sam Nolutshungu Memorial Series, 1:

 

Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Reconciliation Without Justice. Southern African Review of Books,Nov/Dec: 3-5.

 

Mamdani, Mahmood. 1997. Reconciliation Without Justice. Southern Review/ SAPEM 10,6: 22-25.

 

Manus, Christ U. 1989. The Universalism of Luke and the Motif of Reconciliation.

 

Matonse, Antonio. 1992. Mozambique: A Painful Reconciliation. Africa Today 39,35462: 29-34.

 

Mda, Zakes. 1994. The Role of Culture in the Process of Reconciliation in South Africa. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation – University of the Witwatersrand. Seminar Paper No. 9, 1994.

 

Medico International, ed. 1998. Der Preis der Versöhnung: Südafrikas Auseinandersetzung mit der Wahrheitskommission. Frankfurt/M: Medico International.

 

Mensen, Bernhard. 1986. Schuld und Versöhnung in verschiedenen Religionen. Sankt Augustin:

 

Müller-Fahrenholz, Geiko. 1997. The Art of Forgiveness: Theological Reflections on Healing and Reconciliation. Geneva: WCC Publications.

 

Mzamane, Mbulelo Vizikhungo. 1994. Education for a National Culture of Reconstruction and Reconciliation in South Africa. Journal of Theology for Southern Africa,No86: 72-80.

 

Nadasen, S. 1997. Restitution, Reconstruction, Reconciliation and Restribution: Land Reform – Balancing the Interests of the Dispossed, the Homeless and Development. Stellenbosch Law Review: 360-377.

 

Nathan, Laurie. 1992. The Trials of Reconciliation in Namibia. Track Two 1,3

 

Newham, Gareth. 1995. Truth and Reconciliation. Realising the Ideals. Indicator SA

 

Pankhurst, Donna. 1999. Issues of Justice and Reconciliation in Complex Political Emergencies. Conceptualizing Reconciliation, Justice and Peace. Third World Quarterly 20,1: 239-56.

 

Parker, Peter. 1996. The Politics of Indemnities, Truth Telling and Reconciliation in South Africa. Ending Apartheid without Forgetting. Human Rights Law Journal 17,1/2: 1-13.

 

Perez, V., and Holst, Jens. 1991. Chile. Versöhnung auf Kosten der Wahrheit. “Es wird weder eine Amnestie noch Begnadigungen geben.”. Lateinamerika-Nachrichten 18,202: 40-47.

 

Range, Peter Ross. 1992. German-Jewish reconciliation? Facing the past and looking to the future.A Washington Symposium, December 15-17, 1991. Washington/D.C.: American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, Seminar Papers.

 

Schreiter, Robert. 1992. Reconciliation. Mission and Ministry in a Changing Social Order. Maryknoll:

 

Shriver, Donald. 1995. An Ethic for Enemies. Forgiveness in Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Tapscott, Chris. 1993. National Reconciliation, Social Equity and Class Formation in Independent Namibia. Journal of Southern African Studies 19,1: 29-39.

 

Tavuchis, Nicholas. 1991. Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

 

Theissen, Gunnar. 1998. Weiße Selbstbilder: Der Habitus des Verleugnens. In Der Preis der Versöhnung: Südafrikas Auseinandersetzung mit der Wahrheitskommission, edited by Medico International. Frankfurt/M: Medico International.

 

Turok, I. 1995. Restructuring or Reconciliation – South-Africa’s Reconstruction and Development Program. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH 19,2: 305-18.

 

Van der Merwe, Hugo. 1998. The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Community Reconciliation. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.

 

Van der Merwe, Hugo. 1999. The TRC and Community Reconciliation. An Analysis of Competing Strategies and Conceptualisations. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, George Madison University, Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution.

 

Van Wyk, J. H. 1997. Versoeningspogings in Suid-Afrika in hierdie eeu. Word & Action,Winter: 12-13.

 

Verwoerd, Wilhelm. 1996. Continuing the Discussion: Reflections from within the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Current Writing 8,2: 66-85.

 

Verwoerd, Wilhelm. 1997. My Winds of Change. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

 

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. 1995. Telling One Another Stories: Towards a Theology of Reconciliation. In Many Cultures, One Nation. Festschrift for Beyers Naudé, edited by C. Villa-Vicencio and C. Niehaus. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.

 

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. 1998a. A Different Kind of Justice: The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Contemporary Justice Review 1: 407-28.

 

Villa-Vicencio, Charles. 1998b. From Coexistance to Reconciliation: The TRC – A Step Along the Way. Paper presented at the “The Possibilities of Memory and Justice: The Holocaust and Apartheid” conference, Yale University, 08 February 1998.

 

Weiss, Ruth. 1995. Erinnern zur Versöhnung. epd-Entwicklungspolitik,11: 40-46.

 

Winslow, Tom. 1997. Reconciliation: The Road to Healing? Collective Good, Individual Harm? Track Two 6,3-4: 24-26, 40.

 

Wüstenberg, Ralf K., ed. 1998. Wahrheit, Recht und Versöhnung: Auseinandersetzung mit der Vergangenheit nach politischen Umbrüchen in Südafrika und Deutschland. Frankfurt/M: Peter Lang.