Il ruolo delle vittime come soggetto sociale tende ad acquisire uno spessore crescente, un nuovo “status”, un punto di arrivo di tutto un processo che implica un approccio olistico che deve adattarsi alle norme ed obblighi giuridici internazionali. Si tratta di una sfida enorme, specialmente per quanto riguarda la riforma del sistema giudiziario e penale, la messa a punto dell’attività volte ad aiutare a riconoscere e riparare i danni subiti dalle vittime di violazioni dei diritti umani e del diritto internazionale umanitario, nonché combattere l’impunità, favorire la fiducia, contribuire alla riconciliazione e prevenire così la ripetizione nel futuro di violazioni ed abusi. In tale contesto, le misure di giustizia di transizione mirano non solo alla dignità delle vittime, ma anche ad aiutare a prevenire un simile vittimismo in futuro.


Offrire riconoscimento e riparazione alle vittime: la giustizia di transizione prevede un riconoscimento del danno subito dalle vittime. Il mero riconoscimento del pregiudizio non è tuttavia sufficiente. Va piuttosto riconosciuto che le vittime sono titolari di diritti, tra cui quelli ad un ricorso effettivo e ad una riparazione adeguata. I processi messi in atto dopo conflitti o transizioni devono garantire che le vittime non siano nuovamente vittimizzate o traumatizzate.


Elenco sistematico di libri, riviste, articoli scritti sull’argomento:

Adler, Nanci. 1993. Victims of Soviet Terror. The Story of the Memorial Movement. London: Praeger.


Allen, David. 1988. Structured Settlements. Compensating Victims. The Law Quarterly Review 104: 448


Allodi, F. 1989. The Children of Victims of Political Persecution and Torture: A Psychological Study of a Latin American Refugee Community. International Journal of Mental Health 18,2: 3


Allodi, F. A. 1994. Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder in Hostages and Victims of Torture. PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA 17,2: 279-88.


Ankermann, Ernst. 1990. Spätes Gedenken, späte Mahnung Gedanken zur Aufstellung eines Mahnmals für die Opfer der NS Justiz im Bundesgerichtshof. Deutsche Richterzeitung 68,2: 54


Aretz, Jürgen, and Stock, Wolfgang. 1997. Die vergessenen Opfer der DDR. Bergisch Gladbach: Bastei-Verlag.


Asmal, Kader. 1992. Victims, Survivors and Citizens – Human Rights, Reparations and Reconciliation. South African Journal on Human Rights 8,4: 491-511.


Basoglu, Metin etc. 1994. Psychological Effects of Torture: A Comparison of Tortured with Non-tortured Political Activists in Turkey. The American Journal of Psychiatry 151,1: 76-81.


Basoglu, Metin Paker. 1994. Factors Related to Long-Term Traumatic Stress Responses in Survivors of Torture in Turkey. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 272,5: 357-63.


Basoglu, Metin Paker. 1995. Severity of Trauma as Predictor of Long-Term Psychological Status in Survivors of Torture. JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS 9,4: 339-50.


Basoglu, Metin. 1993. Prevention of Torture and Care of Survivors – An Integrated Approach. JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 270,5: 606-11.


Becker, David et al. 1990. Therapy with Victims of Political Repression in Chile: The Challenge of Social Reparation. Journal of Social Issues 46,3: 133


Becker, David. 1992. Ohne Haß keine Versöhnung. Das Trauma der Verfolgten. Freiburg i. Breisg.: Kore.


Becker, Gay. 1997. Disrupted Lives: How People Create Meaning in a Chaotic World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.


Behn, Michael. 1993. Anspruch des Ausländers auf Gewaltopferentschädigung. Zum zweiten Gesetz zur Änderung des Gesetzes über die Entschädigung für Opfer von Gewalttaten vom 21. Juli 1993. Zentralblatt für Sozialversicherung, Sozialhilfe und Versorgung.Zeitschrift für das Recht der sozialen Sicherheit 47,11: 321-35.


Bennet, Mark, and Earwaker, Deborah. 1993. Victims’ Responses to Apologies: The Effects of Offender Responsibility and Offense Severity. Journal of Social Psychology 134,4: 457-64.


Bennewitz, I. 1994. Rehabilitierung und Entschädigung der Opfer von Zwangsaussiedlungen. Deutschland Archiv 27,5: 461-69.


Bergner, R. M. 1993. Victims into Perpetrators. PSYCHOTHERAPY 30,3: 452-62.


Biko, Ntsiki. 1996. Justice First. Index of Censorship 25,5: 67-68.


Buchberger, Stefan. 1992. “Tätowierung auch in der Seele…”. Symposium über psychotherapeutische Hilfe für Holocaust Opfer. Tribüne.Zeitschrift zum Verständnis des Judentums 31,123: 33-36.


Buur, Lars. 1998. As Christians – We Forgive them – Or Do we? An Analysis of the St. James Amnesty Hearing and How ‘Victims’ Respond to the Ritualised Hearings Form. Danish Foreign Political Institute, Copenhagen, April 1998.


Callaghan, K. 1993. Movement Psychotherapy with Adult Survivors of Political Torture and Organized Violence. ARTS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY 20,5: 411-21.


Charny, Israel W. 1990. To Commit or not Commit to Human Life. Contemporary Family Therapy 12,5: 407


Commission of Gender Equality, SANGOCO, and South African Human Rights Commission. 1998. The People’s Voices: National Speak Out on Poverty Hearings, March-June 1998. Johannesburg: CGE, SANGOCO, SAHRC.


Crawford, Kathryn Lee. 1990. Due Obedience and the Rights of Victims. Argentina’s Transition to Democracy. Human Rights Quarterly 12,1: 17-52.


Danelius, Hans. 1989. Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Nordic Journal International Law 58,fasc2: 172


Däubler-Gmelin, H. 1994. Verbrechensbekämpfung, Strafrecht und Strafverfolgung – Wo bleibt das Opfer? Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik 27,9: 338-42.


Davis, GC Breslau. 1994. Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder in Victims of Civilian Trauma and Criminal Violence. PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA 17,2: 289-99.


De Riddeer, Trudy. 1997. The Trauma of Testifying: Deponents’ Difficult Healing Process. Track Two 6,3-4: 30-35.


Deutscher, Bundestag, ed. 1993. Erfahrungsaustausch mit Organisationen, die sich ebenfalls mit derAufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur befassen.Enquete-Kommission “Aufarbeitung von Geschichte und Folgen der SED-Diktatur inDeutschland” am 30. September 1992. Bonn: Deutscher Bundestag.


Dreifuss, Gustav. 1991. Psychotherapy of Nazi Victims. Journal of Psychology and Judaism 15,2: 113


Embacher, H. 1993. The Nonissue of Compensation – Austria and the Victims of Nazism – German, by B. Bailer. OSTERREICHISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT FUR POLITIKWISSENSCHAFT 22,4: 525-26.


Falsetti, SA Resick. 1995. Causal Attributions, Depression, and Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder in Victims of Crime. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 25,12: 1027-42.


Flannery, R. B. 1994. Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder – The Victims Guide to Healing and Recovery.


Gonsalves, CJ Torres TA Fischman. 1993. The Theory of Torture and the Treatment of Its Survivors – An Intervention Model. JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS 6,3: 351-65.


Gorstunsworth, C. Vanvelsen. 1993. Prospective Pilot-Study of Survivors of Torture and Organized Violence – Examining the Existential Dilemma. JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE 181,4: 263-64.


Green, Edward C., and Honwana, Alcinda. 1999. Den Zorn der Geister besänftigen. Vom Wert traditioneller Heilung kriegstraumatisierter Kinder in Afrika. afrika süd,5: 30-32.


Hamber, Brandon, Maepa, Traggy, Mofokeng, Tlhoki, and Van der Merwe, Hugo. 1998. Survivors’ Perceptions of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Suggestions for the Final Report. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.


Hamber, Brandon. 1995a. Dealing with the Past and the Psychology of Reconciliation. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a Psychological Perspective. Johannesburg: CSVR, 27 June 1995.


Hamber, Brandon. 1995b. Do Sleeping Dogs Lie? The Psychological Implications of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. Seminar Paper,No5


Herman, Judith Lewis. 1992. Trauma and recovery. NewYork:


Hey, Bernd. 1990. Opfer und Täter. Juden und andere Deutsche. 4. Sammelrezension über neue regionale und lokale Studien zur NS Zeit. Westfälische Forschungen.Mitteilungen des Provinzialinstituts für westfälische Landes und Volkskunde 40: 661


Higginson, John. 1999. “Making short Work of Tradition”: Popular Rural Protest and teh State of Emergency in Bophutatswana, Marico and Rustenburg, as perceived by TRC Witnesses, 1977-19993. Paper presented at the “The TRC: Commissioning the Past” conference, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 11 June 1999.


Hildebrandt, Rainer. 1991. Vergangenheitsbewältigung. Stellungnahmen von Ex-DDR-Bürgern, die als “Täter” klassifiziert werden, sowie von Opfern. Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft 13. August.


Holtgraves, T. Grayer. 1994. I Am Not a Crook – Effects of Denials on Perceptions of a Defendants Guilt, Personality, and Motives. JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 24,23: 2132-50.


Jacobsen, L., and Vesti, P. 1991. Torture Survivors. A New Group of Patients.


Jaffee, Martin S. 1991. The Victim Community in Myth and History: Holocaust Ritual, the Question of Palestine, and the Rhetoric of Christian Witness. Journal of Ecumenical Studies 28,2: 223-38.


Janoff Bulman, Ronnie et alt. 1994. Victims’ Responses to Traumatic life Events: An Unjust World or an Uncaring World? Social Justice Research 7,1: 47-48.


Kagee, A. Price. 1995. Apartheid in South-Africa – Toward a Model of Psychological Intervention. JOURNAL OF BLACK STUDIES 25,6: 737-48.


Kaschkat, Hannes. 1991. Zur Entschädigung der Opfer des SED Unrechtsregimes. Rehabilitierungsgesetz, Kassation und Häftlingshilfegesetz. Deutschland Archiv 24,3: 238


Kaslow, F. 1995. Descendants of Holocaust Victims and Perpetrators – Legacies and Dialogue. Contemporary Family Therapy 17,3: 275-90.


Kaslow, Florence W. 1990. Treating Holocaust Survivors. Contemporary Family Therapy 12,5: 393


Kastrup, Marianne etc. 1988. Coping with the Exposure to Torture. Contemporary Family Therapy 10,4: 280


Kaufman, Edy. 1989. Jewish Victims of Repression in Argentina under Military Rule (1976-1983). Holocaust and Genocide Studies 4,4: 479


Kawamura, Gabriele et al. 1994. Hilfe für Opfer von Straftaten. Caritas.Zeitschrift für Caritasarbeit und Caritaswissenschaft 95,4: 176-82.


Klie, Thomas et al. 1994. Ungenutzte Entschädigungsmöglichkeiten für Opfer von Gewalttaten? Eine Einführung in das Opferentschädingungsgesetz. Soziale Arbeit 43,3: 74-82.


Kuo, Xing Hu. 1990. Opfer der DDR-Justiz fordern Rehabilitierung. Erstmalig Verbände ehemaliger politischer Häftlinge in der DDR. Deutschland Archiv 23,3: 346


Lichtenstein, Heiner at al, ed. 1995. Täter – Opfer – Folgen: Der Holocaust in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung.


Lurigio, Arthur J., ed. 1990. Victims of Crime. Problems, Policies and Programs. NewburyPark,Calif: Sage.


Lykes, M. B. 1993. Human Rights and Mental Heath Among Latin-American Women in Situations of State-Sponsored Violence. Bibliographic Resources. Psychology of Women Quarterly 17,4: 525-44.


Maerker, Andreas. 1995. Psychische Folgen politischer Inhaftierung in der DDR. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 45,B38: 30-38.


Maes, J. ü. 1994. Blaming the Victim: Belief in Control or Belief in Justice? Social Justice Research 7,1: 69-90.


Mahanta, J. et al. 1987. Psychosocial Consequences of Crime Victimization. Indian Journal of Criminology and Criminalistics 7,1 2: 50


Maja-Pearce, Adewale. 1996. Binding the Wounds. Index of Censorship 25,5: 48-53.


Marcussen, Henrik. 1992. Examining torture Survivors. Articles and Guidelines. Copenhagen: Intern. Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims.


Mcivor, RJ Turner. 1995. Assessment and Treatment Approaches for Survivors of Torture. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY 166: 705-11.


Montgomery, E. Krogh. 1992. Children of Torture Victims – Reactions and Coping. CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT 16,6: 797-805.


Netherlands Institute of Human Rights. 1993. Seminar on the Right to Restitution, Compensation and Rehabilitation for Victims of Gross Violations of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Netherlands Quarterly on Human Rights,Special Issue


Nice, David C. 1988. State Programs for Crime Victims. Policy Studies Journal 17,1: 25


Niederland, Wiliam G. 1980. Folgen der Verfolgung. Das Überlebenden-Syndrom. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp.


Parker, Karen etc. 1994. Compensation for Japan’s World War II War-Rape Victims. Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 17,3: 497-550.


Parong, A. A. 1992. Rehabilitation of Survivors of Torture and Political Violence. The Philippine Experiment. Economic and Political Weekly 27,33: 1755-61.


Peters, U. H. 1991. StaSi-Verfolgungs Syndrom. Fortschritte der Neurologischen Psychologie 59,7: 251-65.


Pion-Berlin, David et al. 1991. Of Victims and Executioners: Argentine State Terror, 1975 1979. International Studies Quarterly 35,1: 63


Platz, WE Oberlaender. 1995. On the Problems of Expert Opinion on Holocaust Survivors Submitted to the Compensation Authorities in Germany. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND PSYCHIATRY 18,3: 305-21.


Potts, Lydia, and Prasske, Brunhilde. 1993. Frauen, Flucht, Asyl. Eine Studie zu Hintergründen, Problemlagen und Hilfen. Bielefeld: Kleine.


Punamäki, Raija Leena. 1988. Experiences of Torture, Means of Coping, and Level of Symptoms Among Palestinian Political Prisoners. Journal of Palestine Studies 17,4: 81


Rasehorn, Theo. 1993. Die Wunde schwärt noch: Juristen als Opfer und Täter Hitlers. Recht und Politik.Vierteljahreshefte für Rechts und Verwaltungspolitik 29,4: 213-21.


Rasmussen, Ole Vedel et al. 1989. The Treatment and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture. International Journal of Mental Health 18,2: 122


Ray, Sudipta. 1990. Offender Oriented Restitution Bills. Bringing Total Justice for Victims? Federal Probation.A Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice 54,3: 30


Rosen, Andreas. 1999. Der schwierige gesellschaftliche Umgang mit der Vergangenheit: Die Opfer und Überlebenden müssen stärker berücksichtigt werden. Gewaltfreie Aktion 31,119/120: 34-46.


Schwentker, W., Buruma, Ian, Mishima, Kenichi, and Hida, Shuntaro. 1995. Japan – Opfer und Taeter. Wissenschaft und Frieden 12,2: 70-86.


Skinner, Donald. 1998. Apartheid’s Violent Legacy: A Report on Trauma in the Western Cape. Cape Town: The Trauma Centre for Victims of Violence and Torture.


Smith, Brent L. 1992. From Victim to Political Activist An Empirical Examination of a State-wide Victims’ Rights Movement.


Spangenberg, Judora J., and Pieterse, Christel. 1995. Stressful Live Events and Psychological Status in Black South African Women. Journal of Social Psychology 135,4: 439-45.


Stötzel, Georg. 1989. Zur Geschichte der Nazi Vergleiche. Das Semantische Gedächtnis der Opfer. Sprachreport.Informationen und Meinungen zur deutschen Sprache,1: 31


Streng, Franz. 1994. Bewältigungsstrategien der Opfer von Gewaltdelikten. Befunde und Überlegungen zum Stellenwert des sog. Genugtuungsbedürfnisses. Österreichische Juristen Zeitung 49,5: 145-54.


Umbreit, M. S. 1994. Crime Victims Confront Their Offenders – The Impact of a Minneapolis Mediation Program. RESEARCH ON SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE 4,4: 436-47.


Umbreit, Mark S. 1989. Crime Victims Seeking Fairness, not Revenge. Toward Restorative Justice (USA). Federal Probation.A Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice 53,3: 52


Van Boven, Theo. 1993. Study Concerning the Right to Restitution, Compensation and Rehabilitation for Victims of Gross Violations of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Final Report by Mr. Theo van Boven. Geneva: ECOSOC, Commission on Human Rights, Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. Un-Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1993/8.


Vanderveer, G., Rivero, V. V., and Groenenberg, V. V. 1993. Counselling and Therapy with Refugees – Psychological- Problems of Victims of War, Torture and Repression.


Vultejus, Ulrich. 1990. DDR Richter: Täter und Opfer zugleich. Neue Justiz 44,9: 394


Weber, Hermann. 1988. Sind alle Opfer rehabilitiert? Zur Diskussion über die deutschen Kommunisten, die in der stalinistischen Säuberung ermordet wurden. Deutschland Archiv 21,6: 580


Wette, Wolfram. 1995. Deserteure der Wehrmacht: Feiglinge – Opfer – Hoffnungsträger? Dokumentation eines Meinungswandels. Essen: Klartext.


Wickler, Hans Rudolf. 1993. Die Sprache extremer Gewalt. Studie zur Situation von gefolterten Flüchtlingen in der Schweiz und zur Therapie von Folteropfern. Bern: Institut für Ethnologie, Univ. Bern.


Wimmer, Adi. 1990. “Expelled and Banished”, The Exile Experience of Austrian Anschluss Victims in Personal Histories and Literary Documents. Journal of European Studies 20,80: 343


Worsnip, Michael. 1996. Michael Lapsley – Priest and Partisan: A South African Journey. Melbourne: Ocean Press.


Wosinska, Wilhelmina et alt. 1988. Das Erleben von Ungerechtigkeit im Kontext sozialer Unterstützung für das Opfer oder für den Täter. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena.Gesellschaftswissenschaftliche Reihe 37,6: 695